1. Section 1
Matching five. Listen to a travel agent talking about interesting places to visit in Wales. Match the correct activities & beaches with each place. Some of the choices may be used more than once.
First, you have some time to read the questions. Now listen to the talk.
The trouble with a long weekend in Wales is that a long weekend is too short. There just isn't enough weekend for what Wales has to offer. Take the Welsh coastline. Whichever way you like your sand, you'll find it in Wales.
For the active, there are surfing beaches all around the coast - at Marloes Sands, at Aberdaron and particularly at Rhossili Beach on the Gower Peninsula which offers some of the best surf in Europe.
Sailing, too, is widely available with yachting centres such as Tendy in the south, Aberdovey in mid Wales, and Abersoch on the Lleyn Peninsula in the north.
There are big, open beaches, and there are small, secluded bays and coves. The six miles of Pendine Sands, for instance, in Carmarthen Bay are so long and wide that they are frequently used for different kinds of racing events. While Llanddwyn Bay on a southern corner of Anglesey offers four miles of sand and dune and countless vantages for the spectacular view across the Bay to Snowdonia. Barafundle Bay in the Pembrokeshire National Park is as secluded as they come, and like Munt, a golden sandy beach trapped in a tiny sheltered cove at the southern end of Cardingan Bay, basks in tranquillity.
And, of course, there are many old fishing villages, Llangrannog and Barmouth among them, whose charm has increased as the fleets of ships have declined. These days, you see, the fishing in Wales is much more for pleasure than profit. For sea fishermen, rivers like the Dee and the Usk provide some of the most available salmon fishing in the UK. Is it any wonder that Wales lures fishermen in droves? And is it any wonder that there are hundreds of cosy lake and riverside inns to accommodate them?
Wales is teeming with interesting places to stay and interesting things to do.
Now turn to section 2.
2. Section 2
You'll hear an introduction to a conference on computer system language learning.
First, you have some time to look at questions 11 to 16. Now listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 16.
Good morning everyone, and welcome to the 2nd Annual Wullaballoo Conference on Mastering Computer Languages. I hope you all had a good trip. Before we get underway with today’s programme, let me fill you in as to what’s on tap for tomorrow, Sunday, February 19th.
At 9:00 a.m. right here in the Main Hall, we’ll be hearing a lecture from Dr John Smith about “Computer as Teacher’’. Professor Smith, from the University of Melbourne, is a world-class expert in the field of computer-assisted education, and his talk promises to be both stimulating and informative.
Immediately afterwards, at 10:30, there will be a presentation of papers by various delegates. That, however, will take place in the Garden Room on the ground floor. If you don’t yet know, the Garden Room is also called the Ballroom, and we’ll be gathering at the west end, the slightly raised area called Level 2. Just look for the crowd. If you get lost, there are signs in the foyer.
After all that thinking, talking, and listening, I expect everyone will be a bit weary. So at 11:15, there will be a break for coffee, cookies, and other light refreshments. These will be available at the aptly named Refreshment Stand, placed by the door back here in the Main Hall. Also, if you choose to skip the formal lunch, you can buy a packed lunch at the stand for a reasonable price.
I strongly urge you, however, to join us at the formal lunch. That won’t be till one o’clock sharp, so you have time to stroll about town a bit. We’ll be eating at the Sea View Restaurant. The restaurant is located right here in the hotel, on the top floor. It’s a good dozen flights of stairs, so I suggest you take the lift on the ground floor, eh? If you’re not fond of fish, there is an all-you-can-eat barbecue available as well. They even offer wallaby meat!
After lunch, we’ll troop back downstairs to Level 2 in the Ballroom for the presentation of further papers, which will begin at 2:00 p.m. Please try to be on time. I know you’ll be a bit tired after lunch, but the Ballroom echoes so with people coming in late. Thank you in advance.
Once we’ve heard the papers, we’ll break for afternoon tea at 3:10 p.m. No need to walk. The manager of the refreshment stand has graciously agreed to have tea served in the Ballroom. He’s even promised us some special scones, baked from a recipe of his dear old Scottish grandmother.
Then, tea being drunk and scones munched, we’ll retire here to the Main Hall for some closing remarks and questions. So, by 5 o'clock we should have the conference wrapped up. But the fun isn’t over! This is Australia mates! We’ll be flocking to the hotel’s own Palm Lounge on the east side of the foyer for an informal reception. You can relax, mingle with the other delegates, and let your hair down a bit. This will run from 5:10 to 6:10, though you’re free to stay as long as you like. The lounge manager has informed me that, for the duration of the actual reception, you can have all-you-can-drink beer for $20.00 with purchase of an advance ticket.
Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 17 to 20. Now listen and answer questions 17 to 20.
And, yes, tickets can be purchased from any conference organiser or at the front desk anytime between now and the start of the reception.
I suggest you come by tomorrow evening to pick up the tickets since the conference hall only holds 800 people. That way, you can also get your journey planned ahead of time and be sure not to miss this truly memorable conference. If you want cocktails, however, I’m sorry. You’ll have to pay for those at the regular price.
Oh my goodness! Speaking of paying, I see I forgot to tell you a couple of things. The first is about lunch. The charge for the lunch will be $15.00 for all you delegates. If you have guests with you, the cost is $25.00 for the general public, and $6.50 for children under the age of 10. That’s fifteen dollars each, not total for everyone! Another item is about the lunch menu. I very much urge you to try the fish. I mean, look at the restaurant’s name: Sea View. As the name suggests, it is a famous seafood restaurant. The chef is a Basque from Spain, and he really gets quite put out when people ignore his fish specialties for burgers or barbecue. If fish isn’t your thing though, try the steak - he makes an exquisite Filet mignon topped with bleu cheese and mushrooms.
Finally, if you’d like to buy a ticket, you can have both lunch and the unlimited beer for $35.00. I should have mentioned that earlier, but I am a bit forgetful. Maybe I should avoid the beer after the conference, eh?
Well, I’ve said my bit. Are there any questions?
That is the end of section 2. You have half a minute to check your answers.
3. Section 3
You will hear a conversation between two students teaches talking about our project.
First, you have some time to look at questions 21 to 26. Now listen carefully and answer questions 21 to 26.
Jimi: Hey, Janis.
Janis: Hey, Jimi. What's up?
Jimi: Not much. I'm kind of worried about these lessons we have to plan. I've not worked much with children before.
Janis: Oh, you don't have anything to worry about, Jimi. All we have to do is choose a few art projects to do with the kids. Then we have to get the materials for them and do the projects by the end of the month.
Jimi: OK, that doesn't sound too bad then. Maybe we could get some ideas from online websites.
Janis: Yup, already did that. I printed out descriptions of the best five and I wanted to ask what you thought.
Jimi: Great, yeah, let's look over them.
Janis: Here you go. Some are from a teaching website and some are from an arts and crafts website. We can talk about what kind of materials we'll need and what would be best for our students.
Jimi: Hmm... the first art project here is called 'Make your own mask.' That sounds like fun. For materials, all we need are scissors, markers, stiff paper arid pieces of string. We have all of those at the school already.
Janis: What's the procedure again?
Jimi: You give everyone the stiff paper. There are some basic guidelines the kids have to follow, like where to cut out holes for the eyes and then one hole for the nose. The kids then color in the mask any way they want, or we can ask them to create masks with a theme, like animals or something.
Janis: That seems easy to do.
Jimi: OK, now the second project here...
Jimi: This one is called 'Shoebox Dioramas'. Each student gets a shoebox and puts one long side of the shoebox into the lid. It now looks sort of like a covered theatre stage. The students then have to create a scene inside the shoebox with the materials we give them, including styrofoam and basically anything else we can think of. We can tell them to do a historical scene, or just somewhere they have been before.
Janis: Alright, well, what's the next one?
Jimi: For art project number three we need egg cartons and pipe cleaners.
Janis: What's a pipe cleaner?
Jimi: Pipe cleaners are basically flexible lengths of metal wire that are furry. They come in all sorts of different colors. They're very useful in crafts. For this project, you take the individual egg holder cups and stick the pipe cleaners in them to make animals.
Janis: OK, that sounds interesting.
Jimi: The fourth art project is called 'Paper Bag Animal.' Students can use brown or white paper bags. They decorate these bags with markers or pieces of colored felt. They decorate the bottom of the bag. When the children put their hands in the bag and hold the bag upright, it becomes a sort of puppet.
Janis: We'd need quite a few paper bags.
Jimi: Yes, we'd need the small lunch bag kind, the grocery paper bags would simply be too large.
Janis: OK, I suppose they would have them available at the corner store.
Jimi: Yes, it's not very green to pack lunches in them, but they're still popular to use.
Janis: So, what do you think of the last project?
Jimi: Well, this fifth project sounds fun. It's called 'Paper Mache Sculptures'. We tear some newspapers into strips and dip them into liquid starch. The kids can choose any object to cover with the strips, like a blown-up balloon. After letting them dry, the kids can decorate the paper mache with paint.
Janis: Sounds a little messy... Shall we go over them and see what's good and bad about each?
Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 27 to 30. Now listen and answer questions 27 to 30.
Jimi: So yeah, number one sounds really easy to do. And you mentioned that we already have all the materials, right?
Janis: Yes, but I think I want to do something a bit more hands-on and creative. I mean, I suppose they can wear their masks and play around, but the project is just basically drawing on paper. It might be too easy.
Jimi: I suppose so.
Janis: What do you think about number two?
Jimi: Well, it certainly is more creative, but do you think that is too hard? I mean, they would have to create whole scenes out of a lot of different kinds of materials.
Janis: Well, I think that the kids could do it. We would have to give them a little more guidance. But you're right, it might be too difficult for them. How about number three?
Jimi: I did this one as a child.
Janis: Yes, I tried to make egg carton creatures as well. It was quite fun, as I recall. Do you think we could get the supplies?
Jimi: I suppose though, unfortunately, the craft store in town is closed. It might be hard.
Janis: I see, well, then we'd have to find another way to get them if we do this project.
Jimi: OK, well, what do you think of the fourth art project?
Janis: Well, when I first looked at it, I thought it might be good but you know what...
Jimi: Yes, what is it?
Janis: Actually, I think our students may have already done this art project in another section.
Jimi: Oh really, you think they have?
Janis: Yes, I'm pretty sure now actually. I don't think it'd be good to repeat it.
Jimi: I suppose so.
Janis: How about the last project?
Jimi: I really like the concept... but it seems really, really messy I mean, we have to dip the newspaper strips by hand into the starch, then wrap it around something, and finally paint the object after it dries. It sounds really fun, but there will definitely be a lot of clean-up.
Janis: Well, that's too bad then... hmm... I guess I can go online and do some more research.
Jimi: You know, I'll help with that, too.
Janis: Thanks, Jimi. I'm sure we'll find something.
That is the end of section 3. You have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to section 4.
4. Section 4
You will hear a talk given by Kate Tomlin on the history of technology.
First, you have some time to look at questions 31 to 33. Now listen carefully to the talk and answer questions 31 to 33.
Our talk today in this history of technology series is about a feat of anti-engineering from the late 19th and early 20th century that is still very much with us today and that is linked with the history of the typewriter. It’s the QWERTY keyboard. What, you might ask, is QWERTY? Well, have a look at the nearest typewriter or computer keyboard. If you look at the top row, you will see that QWERTY are the first 6 letters.
Did you ever think, when you were learning to type, about why the letters on the keyboard are distributed the way they are? Here’s the story. It all has to do with the history of the typewriter.
Typewriters existed since the early 1700s, but the first commercially practical system came into being in 1873. The typewriter is one of America’s greatest unsung inventions. While the telephone, automobile and airplane sped up communications and transportation, the typewriter did the same thing for the written word. But few people paid much attention, possibly because they were too busy reading what the typewriter had written about all the other inventions.
The first typewriters had the keys laid out in alphabetical order, but this system had problems. Some keys that tended to be typed together were physically close. This made the typebars hit each other and get stuck. Typewriters in 1873 jammed or got stuck if the keys next to each other were hit in quick succession.
To solve this problem, in 1878, the QWERTY keyboard was developed, spacing frequent letters away from each other, and therefore reducing the number of jams.
It was not specifically designed to slow down typists, as is generally believed, but the keyboard did create a built-in inefficiency for typists. The most common keys are scattered all over the keyboard rows, many on the left side. Right-handed people have to use their left hand, which is the weaker hand.
Typewriter technology improved, doing away with the original rationale for the QWERTY distribution, but the keyboard remained. In spite of its inefficiency, it is the keyboard we all use today.
Now you have some time to look at questions 34 to 40. Now listen and answer questions 34 to 40.
Already, back in 1932, there was a solution to the problem. Efficiency expert August Dvorak came up with a new keyboard layout. His home row consisted of A-O-E-U-I-D-H-T-N-S - which includes all of the vowels as well as the most commonly used letters. On this keyboard, over three thousand words can be typed using only the home row. In fact, 70% of all the work can be done on the home row, 22% on the row above, and 8% on the row below. The QWERTY keyboard allows only about fifty words to be typed without reaching for other rows. In addition, on Dvorak’s keyboard, the right hand handles 56% of the work load and the left handles 44%, just about the opposite of the division on the QWERTY keyboard. This is an advantage for most right handers. The Dvorak keyboard increased accuracy in typing by almost 50 percent and speed by 15 percent to 20 percent.
How much labour did this Dvorak layout save? In one study, a group of typists was evaluated in the use of both keyboards. Those using the Dvorak keyboard moved their fingers just about one mile on an average day, while those who used the QWERTY keyboard moved their fingers an average of twelve to twenty miles!
The superiority of the Dvorak keyboard was clearly established. However, it has never been adopted as the keyboard of choice. Why? First of all, bad luck and bad timing on the part of the Dvorak team. First there was the Depression, not a good time for introducing change. But the main factor that worked against the Dvorak system was habit. People were used to the QWERTY keyboard. Computers today could easily switch the arrangement of letters to the Dvorak layout, but it seems that because of habit, the QWERTY layout remains dominant. People felt comfortable with the keyboard they learned on so it was the established patterns of hundreds of millions of typists, manufacturers, typing teachers and typewriter salespeople that have crushed all moves toward keyboard efficiency for over 70 years. It looks like QWERTY keyboard may be with us for a long time yet.
That is the end of section 4. You have half a minute to check your answers.