1. Section 1
Dr. Tyler: So Farhad let's talk about your presentation, and you've done a rough outline, so let's go over it and then you can go away and write it all up. Sure I asked you to choose a topic related to water and you've chosen desalination removing salt from seawater. Now why did you choose that?
Farhad: Well, I come from the United Arab Emirates and we have the world's largest desalination plant.
Dr. Tyler: Right, that's very relevant and I think you should include that you know your personal reasons at the start.
Farhad: Say why I decided on this topic?
Dr. Tyler: Yes, just give a sentence or two. That'll do it.
Farhad: Okay, I mean I thought I should keep the introduction brief.
Dr. Tyler: Yes, but you can say what you like the topic. It's a good choice of topic, very interesting, and then I can follow the introduction easily.
Dr. Tyler: Now let's go on to the historical background.
Farhad: I wanted to make it clear that seawater purification isn't a new idea.
Dr. Tyler: No, indeed that's a good point to make.
Farhad: So I am going to describe some of the older methods from the past.
Dr. Tyler: Hmm. I got a bit lost reading your notes here.
Farhad: Aha! Is it too long?
Dr. Tyler: Well, I think the real problem is that the information isn't in any logical order.
Farhad: I see. Well, it is just notes.
Dr. Tyler: When you start in the eighteenth century, then move to the present day, then go back to the twentieth century.
Farhad: So it needs reorganizing.
Dr. Tyler: Yes, that would help.
Farhad: Okay, I'll make it clearer. What about the description of the process?
Dr. Tyler: Oh yes. That looks pretty good to me but we'll go over it in more detail in a moment.
Farhad: Okay, I may need to cut it down.
Dr. Tyler: Yes definitely, it goes on for a long time and gets a bit technical.
Farhad: Sure. Okay, after the process, I want to talk about the pros and cons of desalination because that seems to be the big debate.
Dr. Tyler: I totally agree, but you need to sort this section out.
Farhad: Yes, it is a bit confusing.
Dr. Tyler: I think you should present the main points one at a time.
Farhad: Okay, what are the advantages and the disadvantages?
Dr. Tyler: Yes, and talk about each one individually.
Farhad: Okay, rather than presenting them all together.
Dr. Tyler: Hmm. It's hard for your listeners to take in like that. It's all a bit unclear at the moment.
Farhad: I see.
Dr. Tyler: Lastly you conclude that we need to look for alternative ways to remove salt from seawater.
Farhad: Well, yes. Do you think that's the wrong conclusion?
Dr. Tyler: No no, not at all. However you should tell your audience exactly what you think?
Farhad: Yes, I will in the previous section.
Dr. Tyler: Hmm. But you need to summarize the reasons again in the final part of your presentation.
Farhad: Oh, I see. Right, I'll mention them briefly then.
Dr. Tyler: Just a list will do. That'll make the conclusion a better length as well.
Farhad: Okay, thanks very much, Dr. Tyler.
Dr. Tyler: Okay, so let's have a closer, look at the section on the process of desalination.
Farhad: Well, I just need to outline the principle of the process, don't I?
Dr. Tyler: Uh huh. Yes, yes, you need to explain first. What desalination mean?
Farhad: Well, I want to start by referring to a natural form of desalination. And to say that a seabird filters salt out of seawater in its throat.
Dr. Tyler: Okay, that's interesting. So they just spit the salt out, do they?
Dr. Tyler: Right. That's a good introduction, then you can go on to describe the mechanical process.
Farhad: Yes, well, the first stage is the collection, it involves a large plant that collects the water. Actually, it goes through a canal and that passes the water into the plant or which treats it, you know.
Dr. Tyler: Remove all the rubbish?
Dr. Tyler: So the treatments the second stage, what happens next?
Farhad: Well, the next stage is that it goes through a lot of pipes until it reaches the point where the salt is removed.
Dr. Tyler: Okay, so that's the next point on your chart.
Farhad: Yes, I can talk about this, quite a lot, the salt separated from fresh water.
Dr. Tyler: Right, the water passes through a membrane.
Farhad: Not exactly. That's the whole thing, the seawater has to be forced pumps and a lot of pressure is involved.
Dr. Tyler: Hmm. You need to make that point explain that the water doesn't go freely.
Farhad: No, because the salt is heavy. This is the really expensive part of the process.
Dr. Tyler: Okay, so after that, what happens?
Farhad: Well, there's some more treatment after the high-pressure filtering process, but eventually the system produces fresh water.
Dr. Tyler: Okay, it might be good to mention. What's leftover salt and that's a really big problem. Where does it go?
Farhad: After the desalination process, the substance that remains, it's called brine, it's a very salty substance and it goes back usually into the sea. It's not good for fish though it's a damages but in life.
Dr. Tyler: Well, you can discuss that in the next section of your presentation.
Farhad: Yup. So anyway, a lot of the freshwater that's produced is used for human consumption.
Dr. Tyler: Yes.
Farhad: And it's also used for irrigation for watering farmland.
Dr. Tyler: Great! Well, you've mentioned some of the disadvantages...
Now turn to section 2.
2. Section 2
You will hear a maintenance worker talking to a university officer about some recent storm damage to the main building.
First, you have some time to look at questions 11 - 15. Now listen carefully and answer questions 11 - 15.
Worker: Hello there. I was asked to tell you about the extent of the damage to the main building, caused by the recent storm.
Officer: Oh, that’s right. I take it that most of the damage is just to the main building?
Worker: It is indeed, since the building is so old. However, luckily, the damage is minor, and all of it can be fixed in one day, given that we have five people in our team.
Officer: What will you be doing first? I understand you start at 8 in the morning.
Worker: That’s right, and we were going to remove the fallen tree, but we’ve been told there are exams that morning, and I’m sure the sound of those saws and other heavy equipment will disturb all the students, so instead we’ll fix that leaky roof. That’s a four-hour job, since it involves substantial repair, not like fixing broken windows, which can be done quite quickly.
Officer: So you’ll fix the broken window after that, from midday?
Worker: We could do that, but since we’ll be working in the ceiling, it’s more logical to get rid of those birds’ nests there. It’s a small job but will require crawling inside the ceiling cavity, which is not an easy exercise, so that will take about an hour. But this is good, since by that time the exams should be over, and we can address that tree which has been blown over, after our one-hour lunch break of course. It will be quite noisy dealing with that, but it will be finished by three o’clock. Some of our staff will then leave to fix things on another site — an office nearby needs a new window — but two of us, including myself, will remain here to paint over that discoloured patch of wall in your office.
Officer: Oh good, it looks so horrible at the moment.
Worker: Well, we’ll certainly make it look good once again, and in the last hour of our working day, we’ll fix up that problem with the wiring. Apparently the power doesn’t go to one of the classrooms. Probably some water has gotten into the fuse box, so we’ll just change a few wires, and clean up the moisture, and it should be fine.
Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 16 to 20. Now listen and answer questions 16 to 20.
Officer: I certainly appreciate all the effort you and your team are taking to fix things here, but I do have one request.
Worker: And what is that?
Officer: You said you’re going to paint the back wall in my office. Will it be the same colour as before?
Worker: Yes, we’ll make it a nice white colour.
Officer: Well that’s the point. I’d prefer it to be yellow, to match the furniture. The furniture is orange, actually, but I think yellow is a nice match. Can you do that?
Worker: We can certainly do that. Yellow it is. Certainly a prettier colour than just plain white, or the blue in my kitchen at home for that matter. And we can leave the paint can with you, in case you need to do some touch-ups, or if the stain reappears. I’ll just leave it in the garden shed, the one next to the main classroom. And incidentally, about those birds in the ceiling. I was just investigating, and I heard the chirping of little baby birds in there, so there must be some young ones in a nest. I just thought you’d like to know that we can give them to a wildlife reserve. There’s one in the next suburb, so that should not be too much trouble.
Officer: Or you could give them to one of our teachers. I have a colleague who can raise them.
Worker: I would say the wildlife reserve is a better option, since the people there are used to dealing with animals, and as for that fallen tree, we’ll cut it up into small pieces and that can be firewood in my house, so that won’t be wasted either— although the smoke will cause some pollution, but I have a special licence for my fireplace, so no one can object to that. I’ve noticed also that the university has a garden bin, for the smaller items — leaves and sticks and bark, and so on, so we can dispose of material in that, also. You do have some waste piles out the back, but a proper garden bin means that the material will be recycled, and that’s better for the environment, so you can rest assured we will use that.
That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
3. Section 3
You will hear two students, Sam and Liz, discussing their university orientation program.
First, you have some time to look at questions 21 to 24. Now listen carefully and answer questions 21 to 24.
Sam: Hi Liz. How do you feel about starting university here?
Liz: A little bit nervous, but I’m confident I can handle it. This orientation program seems like it will help us a lot.
Sam: Sure. I’m looking at the timetable here myself. It seems that there are choices available.
Liz: I can see. So, what are you going to do Monday afternoon? In the morning, we all have the opening lecture, but it looks like we have a choice later that day, as you said.
Sam: Well, the ‘Careers Lecture’ might be helpful, but I am interested in the ‘Uni Tour’. It’s probably too early to be thinking of careers now, anyway, and I want to know what’s what at this new university, so, I’m doing the tour.
Liz: Alright. I’ll come along with you. Might learn something interesting. After all, we haven’t seen much of this place yet, and we will be spending four years here.
Sam: Tuesday is another full day, too. In the afternoon there’s a lecture about study skills, but that morning offers another choice.
Liz: ‘Library Tour’ or ‘Student Union Induction’. What do you think?
Sam: I think the student union is very important, but we can go there any time, right, so we should take advantage of the library tour while it’s being offered. Maybe the week after, you and I can go to the student union.
Liz: Library it is, then. Now, Wednesday has a free session in the morning, but after lunch there’s a choice between visiting the computer lab, or attending a lecture on our legal rights.
Sam: Well, law and rights are important, but computers are the basis of everything these days, so I’m going to the computer lab.
Liz: Don’t you think knowing our legal rights is equally, if not more, important? We live in a very litigious and complex society now.
Sam: Sure, but it’s something we can pick up later, so let’s leave that one out.
Sam: Let me see the timetable. Thursday is a free day, and the week winds up with some celebrations on Friday afternoon. It looks like a fun choice, too. There’s either a BBQ on the main lawn, or the dance.
Liz: I never pass up the chance to eat something. What about you?
Sam: If I can get a free meal, I’ll take it any day, and I’m not good at dancing anyway.
Liz: Well, that’s that decided. Right?
Before you hear the rest of the conversation, you have some time to look at questions 25 to 30. Now listen and answer questions 25 to 30.
Sam: Guess what Liz? There’s another interesting thing in this orientation booklet, and it looks important - about a ‘style guide’.
Liz: What’s that?
Sam: Take a look yourself. It seems to be a set of rules regarding how to present written work - essays, and that sort of thing - to the lecturers. They want a uniform style of presentation.
Liz: I can see. So, everything we hand in must have a header and a footer.
Sam: A what?
Liz: A header and a footer. The footer is at the bottom of the page, and the header is at the very top. That’s why they call it a ‘header’, you know, that little bit of writing giving details about the work. And they also want the word count. Why do they need that?
Sam: I guess because the lecturers will specify the number of words they want for their assignment, and they want to be sure students follow this.
Liz: And even the heading on the page has to be a specific dimension. 16 points, and bold print, and underlined.
Sam: And subheadings are 14 points, and the font has to be Arial for everything.
Liz: Yes, the main text is Arial, too, as you said, and the size is 12 points, with the header and footer being slightly smaller, at 10 points each. Well, it seems logical. The size of everything is in proportion to its importance, but why do they need the spacing of the main text to be one and a half? The header and footer are different. They’re only single-spaced.
Sam: Probably to allow the teacher to insert comments, or corrections, or just to make it all more readable, I suppose.
Liz: And we need wide margins on the left, right, top, and bottom, probably for the same reason. Lots of space to allow the addition of comments. That’s a bit scary, actually. It seems to assume we will be making mistakes.
Sam: And look what they want in the header and footer. The header has the name of the work.
Liz: Not the name of the teacher?
Sam: No, the work, but surely the teacher’s name must go somewhere. Ah, here it is. It goes in the footer.
Liz: Okay, I’d say this is all logical. If a page is lost, say, falls to the floor, then with all this information, it can always be traced back to the teacher involved.
Sam: Right - as you say, all very logical.
That is the end of section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
4. Section 4
Your hair Electra talking production of gray wolves into the wild.
First, you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40. Now listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.
I am going to talk about one of my favorite animals today, the gray wolf. Similar to other top-level predators, like the shark, wolves sometimes have a bad reputation. It is true, they do sometimes attack herds of livestock that people depend on. In nature, however, gray wolves are a critical part of the ecosystem. Wolves are larger than the average dog. They also have a keener sense of smell since they are not a domesticated species and still live and hunt in the wild. They hunt in small packs and actually have a sophisticated social system. Scientists have observed that wolf packs are well defined by hierarchies. There is one hierarchy for male wolves and one for female wolves. At the top of each is an alpha male and an alpha female. They are not 'leaders' of the pack, according to the human definition, but they seem to have special privileges compared to the other wolves.
This privilege has to do more with reproducing rather than having more food. Any pair of wolves in a pack may breed, but it is usually the alpha pair's wolf pups that are the most successful. Other pairs may not be able to raise their offspring to maturity, especially when there are limited resources. The alpha status among wolves is not permanent. Wolves are free to challenge the alpha male. These challenges are not necessarily physical fights but are mostly ritual confrontations that involve bluffing and posturing. There is always the potential for violence though, and sometimes the jockeying for the alpha status is fatal for one of the participants.
The range of the gray wolf and its subspecies used to be quite extensive, almost the entire continents of Asia and North America, and the whole of Europe as well. They are now found mostly in Canada, Alaska, the northern reaches of Eurasia, and a few other scattered pockets. In some parts of the world, gray wolves have actually been re-introduced into the wild. Many people were opposed to these programs at first because they thought it would cause economic hardship for livestock owners.
In the United States, local ranchers around the Yellowstone National Park area refused to allow any wolves back. Supporters of the program knew that without cooperation from ranchers, the wolves would likely be shot and killed. Those supporters knew how important the program was and agreed to compensate ranchers for livestock lost to wolves. This important compromise paved the way for the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone in 1995, where they hadn't been seen for over seventy years. The reintroduction has been a great success. Studies show that the biodiversity within the park has increased and is sustaining itself.
After the last gray wolves in the park were killed in 1926, the population of elk and deer soared, decreasing the number of plants available to beaver and moose. The beaver eventually became extinct there. The population of other predator species, like the coyote exploded. This, in turn, caused rodent populations to crash. This crash lead to a decline in bird species like hawks and eagles. These negative trends have all reversed since the wolves came back.
As a result, Yellowstone National Park is a better, healthier place. The local economy also benefits because people are not only interested in seeing more biodiversity at the park, but also the wolves themselves. This brings in tens of millions of more dollars annually to local lodgings, restaurants, and stores.
That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers