1. Section 1
Listen to the results of a radio questionnaire on sports and physical exercises and complete the table below. First, you have some time to look at the form. Now hear a radio questionnaire.
And now, the results of our survey on spare-time activities and sports. We wanted to know how people spend their spare time, so we interviewed women and men around the town during the whole of last week. Here's what we found out.
Only forty percent of men interviewed claimed to do some kind of physical exercise while fifty percent of the women we talked to said that they follow a regular programme of exercise. We also talked about watching sport on TV, and both groups claimed to spend some time on this — forty-one percent of men interviewed do this and thirty percent of women.
We also wanted to find out exactly what form of exercise these people do, so we asked about different sports and activities. Jogging was by far the most popular with twenty percent of men and eighteen percent of women. Most of them do this during the week, either in the morning before going to work or in the evening after work.
Football was also popular with the men: thirteen percent claimed to play, mainly at the weekend on Saturdays. Not surprisingly, none of the women claimed to play. Cricket was another popular sport among the men with nineteen percent claiming to play. Again, no women mentioned this sport.
A lot of people also said they took some form of exercise other than these team sports. Eighty percent of men and ninety percent of women said they regularly walked as a form of exercise, either as part of their daily routine to get to work, or at the weekend in their spare time.
Athletics was also mentioned, but not by many. Only ten percent of men said they did this. None of the women we spoke to mentioned it at all.
Dancing was also mentioned as a form of exercise. Three percent of men and women mentioned this. And also yoga. Five percent of women said they did this regularly and two percent of men.
Finally, a small number of people included gardening as a form of exercise. Eleven percent of men said they did this and thirteen percent of women.
Now turn to section 2.
2. Section 2
You will hear a talk about keeping children safe on the Internet.
First, you have some time to look at questions 11 to 16. Listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 16.
Thank you for coming. It's good to see so many of you interested in keeping your children safe on the Internet. What's in store? Well. Firstly, I'm going to talk in general about some common sense ideas and rules for young ones using the computer, then I'll give you some information on free educational websites. Finally, we'll finish with question time.
I'm sure most of you think that the Internet can be a frightening place in which to let your children roam loose, but let me remind you that it can also be a fountain of knowledge and education. The trick is to avoid the former and utilize the latter. There are programs available both in your local electronics supply shop and free to download that will keep your child safe to a certain degree on the World Wide Web.
A popular one is Online Family Norris which bars things like military and social websites. I wouldn't advise you to rely solely on a program to protect your family though, as good as it is. You cannot abdicate your responsibilities as a parent. I'm sure you all know that or you wouldn't be here.
When all is said and done, the best way to keep children safe is to educate them and keep an eye on them. For this reason, you should make sure the computer which your child uses is kept in a communal space where you can look over their shoulder from time to time. It is paramount that you teach them never to divulge their proper or full name; and to never provide personal information such as where they live or what their phone number is. Tell them that online friends must remain just that online unless they are supervised.
It is difficult I know to teach children about the dangers of the world when they are so naive so trusting and in a sense but without going into great detail. You must alert them to the possibility that the people they are chatting with may not be who they say they are.
It's also sensible not to give them their own email address until they are old enough to use the Internet safely, so all communication from websites will go through you, when they are old enough to use social sites, like Facebook and My Space, teenagers need to know that whatever postings they put on the Web will remain accessible forever — nothing is ever really deleted there, and embarrassing pictures or remarks may come back to haunt them one day.
For instance, when they apply for a job, they could jeopardize their chances as the employer or Human Resources Staff will look on the web to find out more about their potential employee and they may be shocked by what they find there. They're not the sort of stuff an applicant would want on his or her CV. It can also make them more vulnerable to bullying. Unfortunately, bullying on social sites is another thing to look out for and, I have to tell you, it's on the increase. It's a very difficult issue to deal with but something that is more easily detected if the computer is kept in a family space. If we can out these negative issues aside.
Let's not forget that the Internet is also a wonderful place for children of all ages. Teenagers may be mostly networking on social sites or completing research that they've been asked to do as part of their homework assignments, but younger children can get assistance with mathematics, spelling and reading on a variety of free and paid for sites.
Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 17 to 20. Now listen and answer questions 17 to 20.
A good way for children to learn and have fun at the same time is the website mathtutor.com. They can practice mathematics on this site no matter what their level while they compete against other children from all over the world, and here's a fun way for primary school children to learn the spelling words for the week—it can be such a chore for some children—they just type them in and play games to learn them. What's that?
The website, oh sorry, yes, you will need to go to spellcity.com for that. The one I'm going to tell you about now is one of the most practical sites that's popular with people of all ages. Children (or parents for that matter) can learn to touch type as they sing along with songs and there's a variety of funny characters to help you enjoy yourself as you learn.
In this day and age, typing is essential everyone should be able to type fast and accurately so go to Beebe.co forward slash typing and try it out. Don't just leave it up to the kids — here's a site that parents can use to download worksheets to extend their children by giving them further practice: it's called coolresources.com and I can really recommend it, particularly for middle school students.
Now, are there any questions?
That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to section 3.
3. Section 3
You will hear two business studies students discussing a presentation they’ll do on an article on working effectively in groups.
First, you have some time to look at questions 21 to 26. Now listen and answer questions 21 to 26.
Helen: So, Brad, what did you think of the article on group work?
Brad: Oh hi, Helen ... yeah, it was pretty good ... with helpful pieces of advice on how to make group work effective.
Helen: I think we were lucky to be given such a straightforward text to present at the management skills seminar.
Brad: Yeah ... actually, shall we discuss it now ... have you got time?
Helen: Sure ... it’s only a ten-minute presentation, so we just need to explain and then give our views on the main points raised in the article.
Brad: Oh, I’ll jot down some notes ... Right.
Helen: So, there are three main sections. I suggest we start with listening.
Brad: Yeah ... effective listening in groups ... because it’s not something that’s frequently covered on courses in our field.
Helen: No ... and we should say that in the presentation.
Brad: Yeah ... And also effective listening’s pretty simple, you know, I don’t think it’s hard to learn.
Helen: Well ... people think it’s easy, but in my experience most of us tend to be very lazy listeners.
Brad: OK - I wouldn’t argue with that.
Helen: Something I do think we should emphasize is the power of the listener’s posture, gestures, etc. in making speakers feel respected.
Brad: ... not that you’re just waiting for them to finish before jumping in with your own ideas ...
Helen: Ah ha.
Brad: OK. Right ... the next section is on goal setting - let’s make sure we’re clear what the article says on this.
Helen: Yeah - well, firstly, it says that all group members must be given time to explain their own goals.
Brad: ... that’s it, yeah.
Helen: ... and then did it say that the whole group should agree on common goals?
Brad: That’s a bit too strong. It’s more that everyone’s agendas should be equally acceptable ... but it does say that goals have to be realistic, you know.
Helen: ...... achievable within a particular time?
Brad: You’ve got it. That’s really what the article’s saying. There isn’t really any point in having ‘ideals’ if group members know they won’t come to anything within a reasonable period ... So ... I think a summary covering those points will be enough for that part of the presentation, don’t you?
Helen: Yep ... Now the last section is about conflict resolution.
Brad: Actually, I thought it was the worst part of the article.
Helen: Me too.
Brad: I don’t think it went into sufficient detail on the issue.
Helen: Actually I thought it devoted too much space to it but that it was all rather boring, you know.
Brad: It didn’t mention some of the more radical theories ...
Helen: absolutely, I found that really irritating.
Brad: Right ... and also I think it could have said more about conflict sometimes being healthy in groups ...
Helen: Absolutely ... it just mentioned rather glibly about how we should avoid thinking of winners and losers and that quick resolution of conflict is always desirable.
Brad: Without explaining what these terms mean ... ?
Helen: Well, it gives quite detailed definitions but doesn’t develop a proper argument.
Brad: Right ... So for the presentation, I think we just give some definitions and ...
Helen: ... and then explain what we felt were the weaknesses in the article’s treatment of conflict resolution.
Brad: Yeah ... good.
Now you have some time to look at questions 27 to 30. Now listen and answer questions 27 to 30.
Brad: So, let’s think about what we have to prepare for the actual presentation.
Helen: Well, I suppose we’ll use PowerPoint ... but I’m hopeless at using it, especially if it has any visuals. I really have to look into doing a course on it because I know I’ll need it in the future.
Brad: Don’t worry, I’m quite happy using PowerPoint and I’ll put it together when everything else is ready.
Helen: That’s a relief ... but, yes, do that later.
Brad: OK. Now, I heard the tutor saying we have to include some well chosen quotations from the article?
Helen: I’m not sure if we do ... I’ll email him to find out.
Brad: No need, I can just have a look at the specs he gave us when he set the task ...
Helen: That’ll be quicker.
Brad: But the tutor definitely said we have to prepare a handout to go with the talk ... I’m not really sure how we do that.
Helen: Sarah did one last year ...
Brad: Who’s she?
Helen: She’s doing the same option as me on marketing. I’ll ask her advice on what to include.
Brad: Great. So that just leaves the bibliography at the end. I suppose it’ll mainly be articles.
Helen: Yeah. So we’ll just look on the web ... and we can leave that till later.
Brad: But we’ve been advised against that ...
Helen: Well, we could have a look through some journals in the library.
Brad: I think we should start by looking through module handbooks. I think that’ll give us some good leads.
Helen: Yeah ... you’re probably right. So, that’s all the ...
That is the end of section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to section 4.
4. Section 4
You will hear a lecturer discussing public parks.
First, you have some time to look at questions 31 to 34. Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 34.
Most of us are familiar with a local park. We spend time there, play there, and have some of our best memories in these places. But what is a park? Basically, it can be defined as a natural, or at least semi-natural, piece of land, planted with a variety of trees, bushes, and flowers, protected and reserved for the enjoyment of all citizens. There are usually regulations about the sorts of behaviour that can take place within. And sometimes there are facilities such as children’s playgrounds, or fields for ball games and other sorts of activities. For this reason, if there is grass, it is kept short, and this also discourages the breeding of insect pests. A well-maintained park actually needs a lot of people to look after it, and more so if the park showcases special plants, flowers, or trees, in which ease it is called a ‘botanic garden’. In complete contrast, if the park is big and remote enough, it is sometimes designated as a wilderness park, to be left completely alone and untouched, protected from all development in order to allow wild species, both plant and animal, to live undisturbed.
But it is the urban park - the sort of park that most people are familiar with, that I want to talk about now. These preserve natural landscapes for the pleasure of the urban population, most commonly just for passive recreation - in other words, allowing people just to observe the trees, and lie in the grass, and such passive recreation is certainly needed.
Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 35 to 40. Now listen and answer questions 35 to 40.
Continuing on the subject of parks, it might surprise you to know that once there were none. A thousand years ago, there was no need, since there were already extensive open spaces, forests, and wilderness surrounding most cities and towns - for example, in Europe. These dark dank forests were large and even dangerous, full of wild animals and with the potentially fatal result of getting lost. Hence, fairy tales evolved about witches living in these areas, and the wolves and bears, which could threaten young children.
However, with the rapidly increasing human population, the original wilderness and natural open spaces were intruded upon. Forests were cut down as populations spread, and with them, urban pollution and further deforestation. But it was only with the advent of the Industrial Revolution that people realised natural areas needed to be preserved, to give the populace access to the sort of nature that was fast disappearing due to the uncontrolled development and demand for resources.
The first park, expressly designed for that purpose, is usually considered to be Princes Park in Liverpool. This was in 1841, on land donated to the public by a rich iron merchant. With such a generous donation (worth about £50,000), the council decided to invest £5,000 of its own money in making it look good. Consequently, they hired a landscape designer, Joseph Paxton, who designed twisting turning pathways among shade-giving trees, all based around a central lake. In many ways, it became the prototype for all later large parks, including the famous Central Park in New York.
But, if we were to pick the park that most people are familiar with, it would be the much smaller neighbourhood park. These can be tiny, but, by being in the midst of extensive development and dense populations, they are increasingly seen as a refuge, where one can get a glimpse of true nature. Many psychologists now maintain that this glimpse is necessary, for ultimately, as a species, we have an innate affinity for nature, and the concrete urban zoo clashes with our inner being. This has seen the rejuvenation of many urban parks that were once left to decay, for example, in New York or London, and indeed, some cities, such as Melbourne, are known all over the world for their abundance of carefully maintained parks, including a world famous botanic garden.
That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers. That is the end of the listening test. You now have 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the answer sheet.