1. Section 1
You will hear someone giving instructions to staff at a festival.
Listen carefully and answer question 1 to 3.
Good morning everybody. I'd like to welcome you to the festival. My name is Sandy and I'm the general manager of Castle Music Events and I just want to take a moment to mention a few things to you before you go and have your detailed briefings in your work groups. You all have a copy of the plan of the festival grounds. Now most things are obvious, but I'd like to point out first, the visitor toilets here, along the side of the main area. Kindly do not use these yourselves - your own facilities, the staff toilets are beside the breakfast tent. Also, there are public telephones behind the stage. I mention these two things because they are places that visitors often ask for. For yourselves, one of the most important places is the staff meeting point. This is new this year and the only thing to remember is that it exists and that when you refer to a meeting point between yourselves, you need to make clear which one you are talking about.
The staff meeting point is between Campsite 1 and the disabled viewing area. This is not marked on the general maps, but it is marked on the maps you've got there. The visitors' meeting point is, as you can see, in the centre of the main area, between the breakfast tent and the entrance.
Now another important facility is the first aid tent. This is a big round tent, so you can't miss it. It's on the right-hand side of the entrance - again, as you come in. There are many other first aid facilities all over the festival site. In fact, there is a first aid box in every tent and sales point, but this is the central point.
Finally, I wanted to mention the security on the site. Every year the festival gets bigger and bigger and so every year we have to increase the security arrangements. We have a number of small security offices, one being near the entrance, but the main security office is opposite the disabled viewing area - it's next to the old England pub so that the officers can keep an eye on what's going on there. And of course, in that office there is a full supply of first aid equipment, too. And don't forget, those of you who can't wait till you get your pay at the end of the festival, there are some cash machines in the wall of the old England pub.
Now answer questions 4 to 10.
I do hope you'll enjoy working with us this year. It's always good to see some of last year's faces back with us again. We hope this year to put on an even better festival than before. The first year we put on a festival we called it the Mountain View Pop Concert. And it was a pop concert rather than a festival. We held it inside the castle and you could see the mountains in the background. It was very small and personal. Then we held it in front of the castle, with the castle in the background and then we started calling it the Castle Festival. Now, this year we have moved further away into the fields. The advantage is that the castle and the mountains are both there in the distance, but we have as much space as we want in the fields. The only problem with the fields is that sheep use the fields during the spring months and they leave little messages for us all over the place. So please be careful and encourage the visitors to be careful, too.
Now it just remains for me to let you know the limes of your detailed briefings which are as follows. And I'm telling you these as they are not - I repeat not - as written down on your welcome letters. Those of you who are working on the Children's Zone, your meeting is at 2 p.m. in Campsite 2. Those of you on the security team need to meet behind the stage at 3.15 p.m. For the people on first day, please do not meet in the first aid tent - there will not be enough room - but meet at the entrance gates at at 4 p.m.
Finally, we need everybody, and I do mean everybody, on duty on Monday morning at 8 a.m. for the final clean-up. I'd like to remind you that Monday is the final day of work, not the Sunday. People not coming to the final day will lose 50 per cent of their pay. The meeting place for that is Campsite 1. Now, good luck and let's make this the best festival ever!
Now turn to section 2.
2. Section 2
You will hear the director of a language-centre library explaining about its facilities to some new students.
First, you have some time to look at questions 11 to 16. Now listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 16.
Welcome to the library, or the ILC which means Independent Learning Centre, and let me explain about some of its facilities. We're standing here at the entry gates, next to the borrowing desk. That's where you check out any books, but you are also advised to study in the library here, since most of our material cannot be borrowed. Thus, we have seating along the middle of the library, and in that far corner in front of us. On the left, we have the Quiet Reading Section, for some serious reading activity.
We used to have the computers there, but then realised that that corner was very quiet, and thus better suited for the purpose it now has. The computers were instead shifled to a more central location, right beside us here, on the left. Again, somewhat confusingly, this area once housed the Newspaper and Magazine Section, but the people in the Quiet Reading Area had to walk too far to collect this literature, so it was moved to right beside them, in the adjacent corner. So, feel free to read the newspapers there. But the reference books, those huge weighty dictionaries, atlases, and encyclopedias, were all situated at the opposite end of the building, against the wall. This was because they weren't generally that popular, and we wanted more space for the magazine racks, always a favourite with readers.
Okay, as well as reading, you need to work on your listening skills, and for that you need the Audio Section. Again, such an activity needs a quiet area, so we put this in the last remaining corner, up there on your right, as you can see. There are CD players and headphones, so just borrow the listening packs, sit down there, and listen away.
Right, that just leaves the main library. In other libraries, that's often right beside the Newspaper and Magazine Section, allowing freedom to choose from all genres of literature, but here, we've got them further apart. For the main library, just follow your nose, past the central settling there, and it’s there among all that shelving, upon which you’ll find an abundance of interesting hooks and listening packs to use.
Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 17 to 20. Now listen and answer questions 17 to 20.
Now, I’d like to tell you a bit more about an excellent service offered in the ILC here that we call the 'Special Sessions'. What can you do in them? For a start, many of you need practice in speaking English, and for that we hold a special Discussion Session, led by a teacher. That can be noisy, in fact, we hope that it is noisy, since that would mean many people are talking. It's in the Central Seating area, and it used to be from 10.30 to 1.30, but we found that the noise was disturbing the regular ILC patrons, so we shortened and moved this discussion to the morning, 9.00 am time slot, when fewer people tire in the centre. It goes for one and a half hours.
Alright, what about Writing Skills? Well, we can help you there with another teacher. Now, writing is a fairly quiet activity, so that teacher stations him or herself in the Quiet Reading area from 1.30 until three. The 10.30 to midday time slot cannot have a teacher for such writing skills, as they are all teaching in the morning. For this reason, of course, there cannot be an on-call teacher in the morning either, although many people would like one, particularly the 10.30 to noon crowd, having just finished their early morning class. These students all have to wait until midday onwards, when, for three hours, a teacher will be stationed in the Audio Section, ready to deal with all those questions.
Until recently, we had another teacher doing the 3pm to 6pm time slot, in the Central Settling, but all the noise interfered with the late users of the ILC, so we had to cancel that. Also noisy can be the Language Exchange, where local students who want to learn your language will help you practise English. This is generally done in pairs, so the noise level is low enough not to need this exchange lo run at 9 am, but at a more congenial time of 10.30, among the Central Seating. That must finish by 1.30 though, tiller which quieter and more individual activities take place.
That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to section 3.
3. Section 3
Listen to the following talk, circle the correct answer four questions 21 to 26 and complete the table.
Good evening and welcome to this month’s Observatory Club lecture. I’m Donald Mackie and I’m here to talk to you about the solar eclipse in history.
A thousand years ago, a total eclipse of the sun was a terrifying religious experience – but these days an eclipse is more likely to be viewed as a tourist attraction than as a scientific or spiritual event. People will travel literally miles to be in the right place at the right time — to get the best view of their eclipse.
Well. What exactly causes a solar eclipse — when the world goes dark for a few minutes in the middle of the day? Scientifically speaking, the dark spot itself is easy to explain: it is the shadow of the moon streaking across the earth. This happens every year or two, each time along a different and, to all intents and purposes, a seemingly random piece of the globe.
In the past, people often interpreted an eclipse as a danger signal heralding disaster and in fact, the Chinese were so disturbed by these events that they included among their gods one whose job it was to prevent eclipses. But whether or not you are superstitious or take a purely scientific view, our earthly eclipses are special in three ways.
Firstly, there can be no doubt that they are very beautiful. It’s as if a deep blue curtain had fallen over the daytime sky as the sun becomes a black void surrounded by the glow of its outer atmosphere.
But beyond this, total eclipses possess a second more compelling beauty in the eves of us scientists, for they offer a unique opportunity for research. Only during an eclipse can we study the corona and other dim things that are normally lost in the sun’s glare.
And thirdly, they are rare. Even though an eclipse of the sun occurs somewhere on earth every year or two, if you sit in your garden and wait, it will take 375 years on average for one to come to you. If the moon were any larger, eclipses would become a monthly bore: if it were smaller, they simply would not be possible.
The ancient Babylonian priests, who spent a fair bit of time staring at the sky, had already noted that there was an 18-year pattern in their recurrence, but they didn’t have the mathematics to predict an eclipse accurately. It was Edmund Halley, the English astronomer, who knew his maths well enough to predict the return of the comet which, incidentally bears his name, and in 1715 he became the first person to make an accurate eclipse prediction.
This brought eclipses firmly into the scientific domain and they have since allowed a number of important scientific discoveries to be made. For instance, in the eclipse of 1868 two scientists, Janssen and Lockyer, were observing the sun’s atmosphere and it was these observations that ultimately led to the discovery of a new element. They named the element helium after the Greek god of the sun. This was a major find, because helium turned out to be the most common element in the universe after hydrogen. Another great triumph involved Mercury. I’ll just put that up on the board for you now. See — there’s Mercury — the planet closest to the Sun – then there's Venus, Earth, etc. For centuries, scientists had been unable to understand why Mercury appeared to rotate faster than it should. Some astronomers suggested that there might be an undiscovered planet causing this unusual orbit and even gave it the name ‘Vulcan’. During the eclipse of 1878, an American astronomer, James Watson, thought he had spotted this so-called ‘lost’ planet. But, alas for him, he was later obliged to admit that he had been wrong about Vulcan and withdrew his claim.
Then Albert Einstein came on the scene. Einstein suggested that rather than being wrong about the number of planets, astronomers were actually wrong about gravity. Einstein’s theory of relativity – for which he is so famous – disagreed with Newton’s law of gravity in just the right way to explain Mercury’s odd orbit. He also realised that a definitive test would be possible during the total eclipse of 1919 and this is indeed when his theory was finally proved correct.
So there you have several examples of how eclipses have helped to increase our understanding of the universe and now let's move on the social.
Now turn to section 4.
4. Section 4
You will hear a talk given by a lecturer in the art history department.
First, you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40. Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.
In this lecture today, I'm going to introduce you to an American painter, Charles Willson Peale. You may be familiar with his portraits but did you know that he never even saw a painting till he was a grown man. He was born in Maryland in 1741, his father died when he was 9 and the family struggled financially for the next few years and Charles became a saddle makers apprentice.
One day he went to Norfork for supplies and there he saw paintings for the first time. He thought they were so bad that he felt sure he could do better, so he decided to make painting his career. In 1766 he went to London to study painting with Benjamin West whilst there he painted this portrait in 1768. See slide one - Pitt as a Roman Se. Notice how elaborately symbolical this portrait is the symbolism arises of course from Pitt's famous speech to the British Parliament where he draws an analogy between the ancient Roman Senate's view of a barbaric Britain and the prevailing European view of the time of a barbaric African continent fuelling the slavery trade. Perhaps you didn't know that the Romans used Britons as slaves but I digress back to peal he returned to America and in 1772 painted the first ever portrait of George Washington.
See slide 2, in 1773, he painted a group portrait of himself, his wife, mother, brothers, sister, his old nurse and an unidentified baby. Just look at the slide, this painting is symple called the Peale family and you can almost feel the exuberance of the family and their warmth towards one another. He enjoyed great success as a portraitist prior to the Revolution and served with distinction in the revolution. During this time, he became friends with George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. After the war, he continued to paint and when his wife died in the 1790s as a result of her 11th pregnancy, he remarried. He had 17 children in all, naming the sons after famous painters or scientists although perhaps best known for his portraits of famous people Peale liked novelty. Look at this slide of his 2 sons Raphael and Tyson life-size climbing a narrow stairway. This painting, the Staircase Group 1795 was exhibited in a doorway as a trump lloyd. And it is said that it did in fact fool the eye of George Washington. And in 1772 we can see his desire for difference and Rachel weeping. It's a rather McCobb portrait of his first wife crying over the death of one of their children, their daughter Margaret.
I'd like to show you one more slide to demonstrate his innovative approach. This is a portrait of his brother Jams sitting at his deck at night with only his face illuminated by a lamp this was painted much later than the others in 1822. You know Peale believed anyone could learn to paint and he taught painting to his brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, nephews, nieces and other relative. Four of his sons Tyson, Rubens, Rembrandt and Raphael became painters as did his brother James. Before I finish, I'd like to tell you a bit more about Peale, he was active in politics for several years and throughout his life he maintained a lively interest in many branches of science. He was also an inventor who gained patterns for a fireplace porcelain false teeth and a new kind of wooden bridge. He collaborated with Thomas Jefferson on what was known as the polygraph, a kind of portable writing desk, but it wasn't any ordinary desk, this one could make several copies of a manuscript at once. He also wrote papers on a wide variety of subjects from hygiene to engineering and he also tried his hand at inventing a fairly primitive but innovative motion picture technique new types of eye glasses and a velocipede which is a precursor to the bicycle now some of the original velocipedes had pedals and some didn't you sort of scooted along on them using your feet. Unfortunately I can't remember which type it was that Peale worked on. He's also remembered for his work as a naturalist, he established the first scientific museum in America and he even invented his own system of taxidermy. For those of you who aren't sure what taxidermy is it's the art of preparing, stuffing and presenting dead animals so that they appear life like. He was also well ahead of his time in that he placed his animals in a simulated natural environment, his most magnificent exhibit however was the complete the complete skeleton of an extinct mammal known as a mastodon which he helped excavate the event was memorialized in his extraordinary painting the Exuma of the mastodon.
That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers.