1. Section 1
You will hear a telephone call between a woman and a customer service representative at a moving company.
You have 30 seconds to look at question 1 to 6.
Man: Good afternoon, Giant Truck Moving Company. How may I help you?
Woman: Yes, hello, I'm calling to get some information for my upcoming move my family is relocating to a new apartment across the city.
Man: Sure, I'll be happy to help you. Have you made a reservation with us already?
Woman: No, I tried to use your online price quote system, but it didn't seem to work for me, I kept getting an error message.
Man: Okay, I'm sorry about that. We've been having some problems with our website recently. I'd be happy to provide a quote over the phone, tell me. Did you at least get a customer inquiry number when you filled out your information online?
Woman: Yes, I did. I can give it to you. A-D-5-6-5-9-8-3-7-J-C-6.
Man: Thank you. Yes, I see a record here. Mrs. June Rayburn, correct?
Woman: Yes, that's me.
Man: Yes, I see that unfortunately any information you entered wasn't saved in our system. We'll have to start your quote from the beginning? Would you please provide your current address and the new address, so I can calculate the mileage.
Woman: Sure, we're headed to 798 Scottsville Street in Grand City.
Man: Thank you to confirm that 798 Scottsville Street in Grand City.
Woman: Wait. I'm not sure that you got that it's Scott spell.
Man: Ah, yes, thank you for the correction. And did you say that your current address?
Woman: No, that's my destination.
Man: Got it! Okay! 798 Scottville Street Grand City. And what is your current address?
Woman: I live at 12 Irving Court which is also in Grand City.
Man: 12 Irving Court, thank you. So your move will be about 6 kilometres across the city?
Man: And what will you be moving exactly?
Woman: I have a 2-bedroom apartment with some large furniture like a sofa, a kitchen table, a couple dressers and 2 beds. Oh, and we have 3 large wooden bookshelves as well.
Man: Okay, no problem! Give me a moment to write that down. Okay, any other large furniture you need to transport it?
Woman: Well, I have several large chairs in my living room but I'm thinking about selling them before my move, so I would prefer if you didn't include those items in your quote. The only other large item we have is our patio furniture.
Man: Patio furniture? Okay. And you said you live in a 2-bedroom apartment, right?
Woman: That's correct!
Man: Usually we estimate that a normal 2-bedroom apartment requires about 60 medium-sized boxes to pack all your things. Do you think that sounds about right?
Woman: Well, I have a hard time guessing really. Let's just go with that number for the quote, I suppose.
Man: Okay, then give me a moment calculate things here.
Now you have 30 seconds to look at questions 7-10.
Woman: Oh, wait, how can I forget, I forgot to tell you that we also have a piano.
Man: Oh, I see. I am sorry to tell you that our company might not be able to move your piano.
Woman: Oh, that's too bad.
Man: Can you tell me what kind it is?
Woman: Hmm. I'm not sure what style it is, but it is quite small, I mean for a piano. You see the hallway leading to my current apartment is very narrow, so I had to buy one that would fit into my place.
Man: And do you remember how many movers were required to move it into your apartment? Did they use any special equipment?
Woman: No, I remember there were 4 movers and no special equipment, they just lifted it in. I live on the ground floor with no steps leading to my place.
Man: I see, it may be okay then, that's great that there are no steps at your current address. Are there steps we would need to climb at your new place?
Woman: Maybe just one or two, I don't remember to be honest, but my new place is also on the ground floor.
Man: Aha, maybe this will work then. Let's include the piano in your quote for now, but eventually we'll have to take some measurements to confirm whether or not we can move it.
Woman: Hmm, okay. I guess I would have to hire a piano mover if you couldn't move my piano.
Man: That's correct. But I am optimistic about it based on your description of the piano, for now, let's get you a quote assuming we can do it. Just a moment while I calculate everything. Okay, it will be about $575 for your move. This number depends on how many boxes you have after everything is packed and of course whether or not we will be moving your piano. Without the piano, the estimate would be about $100 cheaper.
Woman: Okay, thank you. Your quote is cheaper than some others I've received, but I will end up paying more in the end if you can't be with my piano. I mean if I will have to hire another company to move it, what must we do to verify whether or not your company can move my piano.
Man: Let's do this. Please take a picture of the piano, send it to me along with the basic measurements, that is the height, width and depth of the piano, send it all to me in an email. That should be enough information to verify whether or not we can move it.
Woman: Great, I'll do that right away this afternoon. If it turns out, you can't move my piano, I will be eager to schedule my move with you.
Man: Perfect, I look forward to hearing from you. Is there anything further I can help you with today?
Woman: No, thank you very much for your help.
This is the end of section 1. You have 30 seconds to check your answers.
2. Section 2
You'll hear a speech at a planning meeting for a fundraiser event.
You have some time to look at questions 11-13.
Welcome everyone. Thank you for attending this evenings orientation gathering, I appreciate your generosity and your willingness to volunteer your time to help out at this year's Beach Bash party at the Moray Bay Beach Events Center. With your help, we will raise much-needed money for our summer youth program at Moray Bay Aquarium. As you may know my name is Dr Michael, I've been the director of Bay Aquarium for 15 years.
Now before I go over some important details related to the Beach Bash event. Let me first provide you with some background about Moray Bay Aquarium. And our summer youth program for those of you who are new volunteers. The mission of the Moray Bay Aquarium is educational, we house over 475 species of ocean wildlife here. Of course, we have some sharks and jellyfish, you know the animals that everyone loves to see at an aquarium. However, most of the ocean wildlife in our aquarium comes from local sources. That is more a bay the nearby coastline and the deep waters within 200 kilometres of the aquarium. We want to provide the local community and visitors to our area an opportunity to view and learn about our unique marine wildlife.
We believe this can accomplish two important goals. The first is well by learning about the incredible wildlife in our region. People may come to appreciate it more. Secondly then as understanding and appreciation growns, so too does the likelihood that people will try even harder to protect and preserve the marine ecosystems in our region. This is precisely why we offer a summer youth program every year at Bay Aquarium. We invite kids from ages 8 to 12 to spend a full week with us at the aquarium to learn from our biologists explore the local beaches and head out to sea by boat. The kids get to examine little creatures with our microscopes. They learn how to feed and care for our animals and they spend time learning about the local ecosystems. This great program is why you're here tonight. We hold the Beach Bash event every year to raise funds from the community for our summer youth program. Thank you again for volunteering to help at the party.
Now you have 30 seconds to look at questions 14 to 20.
I'm excited to tell you that we're expecting a record number of attendees this year over 2000 people which is 500 more than last year. In order for this event to go smoothly, we need your help to keep things organized. Later I'm going to break you up into smaller groups, so you can do some detailed planning and preparation with your team leader. But first I want to give you a brief overview of how the event is organized.
For reference, please look at the event map provided in your volunteer booklet. The first team of volunteers team one, you are the greeters and ticket takers. You will be located at the 2 tables in front of the beach pavilion, the one on the left is the ticket collection stand. You will simply take tickets from the guests who pre-ordered their event tickets. All you need to do is take each person's ticket and hand them an event brochure. The one on the right is the ticket sales booth, anyone who didn't pre-order 2 tickets online or over the phone will have to wait in line to purchase a ticket from you.
Okay now team 2, you will be stationed at the information centers. There will be 3 information center placed at each end of the Great Hall and of course one inside the entrance to the pavilion. It's just inside the front door to be, let me confirm this. Yes, it will be to the left after you enter. Your job is to help visitors when they have questions. Please become very familiar with the layout of the facilities before your volunteer shift begins. Guests will want to know where to find restrooms, there are some in the Great Hall, but there are also some directly across the information booth at the entrance to the pavilion. They may also want to know where to find the food court for the game area. Notice how the game area is located along the wall facing the bay in the Great Hall. There are 2 places to find food, one is in the pavilion, let me see, yes it's near the information booth. The other the food court is at the back corner of the Great Hall on the same end as the main stage. No, that's not right, excuse me, it's on the same end of the Great Hall as the game area. The main stage is on the other end of the Great Hall, you see it directly in front of you as you enter the hall from the pavilion.
Finally, then team 3, you will be responsible for helping to keep the event space clean and organized during the festival. I know this isn't the most fun assignments, but it's critical to the success of the event with all the food and games going on things get cluttered quickly. Please check near the food court area often as that is the space that can get quite messy. Please also note that there are trash bins located just behind the kitchen in the pavilion. They're just across the alleyway use these trash bins for anything you pick up, so the bins in the pavilion and the hall don't fill up too quickly.
Okay, that is my brief orientation to the event. You will now break up into teams to get some more information from your team leader. Thank you once again for volunteering at this year's Beach Bash.
This is the end of section 2. You have 30 seconds to check your answers.
3. Section 3
You will hear a discussion in a psychology class.
You have 30 seconds to look at questions 21 - 28.
Woman 1: The video we just watched shows chimpanzees responding to a human language, American Sign Language and also using it. Talking to humans, talking to each other you even see them talking to themselves, this really says a lot about language, the power, the psychology, the psychological impact of human language.
Woman 2: The French all looked really old, our scientists still doing experiments like that today.
Woman 1: Oh yeah, there are still lots of experiments being done today where apes especially chimpanzees are taught sign language. You're right, though, the examples in the video are older ones from the 1960s and 70s. Psychologists have been trying to teach animals to speak for some time. But that was the first time they really pulled it off. Let's hear some other thoughts on the video.
Man: Well. I guess I was surprised at how comfortable the animals looked, using human language, I mean they were really into it and try to make me wonder. Maybe apes have their own sign language, something like human language that we don't know about.
Woman 1: That's a great point, Todd and actually you're right, chimps do have their own sign language and we didn't know about it until a couple of, sorry I'm not sure exactly how recently we discovered this. But not too long ago, researchers realized that chimps will use their own sign language to talk to each other in the wild. It's simpler than human language though, and it doesn't have the distinguishing characteristics of human speech. Let's review those who can tell me some of those characteristics.
Woman 2: Using a voice, right, because no other living thing has so much control over the vocal cords, the tounge, teeth, lips.
Woman 1: It's true that most humans can communicate with their voice. in a way you don't see other people, sorry I mean other animals, other animals use their voice, but they can't make words the same way, voicing them, pronouncing them, but that's not really a necessity in every human language. Remember Karen, American Sign Language is a human language too, and there are other sign languages, these don't use the vocal cords or mouth, right.
Woman 2: Oh, right, well displacement, that's like ability to talk about things that aren't in the here and now, like talking about what you want to do next week or what's happening in another country or what's happening in like a fictional story that isn't even real.
Woman 1: Exactly and chimps don't do that naturally in their own sign language, you know their own signs just communicate their immediate situation, mmm, without being trained by humans chimps just say stuff like, like go here or stop that or, mmm, take this. But there's more, more to a human language.
Now you have some time to look at question 29 - 30.
Man: Maybe Shemp language isn't productive in the same way as human language.
Woman 1: You've hit the nail right on the head. I think but explain what you mean a little bit more.
Man: Well, I remember we discuss productivity before. The feature of language that lets us make, um, say as many different kinds of things as we want because we have so many words and we can combine them all in these different ways. It sounds like maybe chimps have just a few words.
Woman: Right. Without human training, I can only say a few things because their vocabularies are small. And again while chimpanzees are also limited in what they can say because they can't talk about displaced topics outside of whatever is going on when they're signing. Now when they're trained chimps and apes can use all the features of language, they can tell jokes, talk about the future. And they learn enough words that their language gets really productive. Even with just the 300 or 400 word vocabulary, they can see all sorts of things. I'd still argue though that displacement and productivity are uniquely human. These animals have to learn this language use from humans and they don't reach the level of language, language complexity that humans do even after a lifetime of training.
This is the end of section 3. You have 30 seconds to check your answers.
4. Section 4
You will hear a lecture in an environmental studies class.
You have 30 seconds to look at questions 31 - 34.
Often when we think about deserts, we imagine vast uninhabitable wasteland that are basically, um, well, uninhabited, but actually dry lands comprise over 40 percent of the earth and over 2 billion people across the globe live within these very tough ecological zones. Obviously, the scarcity of water is a huge issue for any population big or small and to survive people in dry lands. These kinds of societies often will utilize too much of what little resources they have. It's unsustainable process leading to an eventual degradation and intensification of environmental conditions. The whole process is known as desert vocation the land basically deteriorates over time becoming a harsher and harsher desert, but I should mention that desert vocation does happen naturally severe and persistent droughts occur. And well they're basically unavoidable unfortunately, but the intensification of the process has become alarming. Let me walk you through how human activity has affected desert vocation. Throughout history the populations of arid and semi-arid regions were small and basically nomadic balancing survival techniques like hunting and gathering with farming and herding. They moved around a lot in, in their attempts to navigate the irregular seasons, but population growth lets a less movement and more farmland and that farmland needs to be irrigated.
Now you have some time to look at questions 35 - 40.
Now all life is essentially dependent on healthy soil plants can't grow without it and without plants there. There aren't any crops for people or for that matter grazing animals. Healthy soil is the result of a few concerted efforts like heavy composting rotating crops and using chemical fertilizers sensibly and correctly and for truly rich soil there needs to be fungi and microorganisms in the earth byproducts of organic decay the breakdown of dead plants and animals provides nutrients like carbon nitrogen and sulfur and phosphorus. Now those components need to be maintained in the soil in order to farm effectively. That's true anywhere, not just in dry areas without proper conservation of healthy soil.
We begin to see desert if vocation too often chemical fertilizers are overused as is what little water is available sapping the topsoil of those fundamental nutrients. If plants can't draw nutrients from the earth, they don't grow which means there are fewer root systems absent of those roots. The soil becomes too compact or too loose, resulting in erosion and that leads to even further desert vocation but there are also a few other causes. Grazing animals can be responsible as well livestock like cows and sheep are obviously very important to any robust farming society but the problem with permitting animals to feed uncontrolled in dry regions with few predators and no migration is that they can quickly eliminate all plant life and like before without the vegetation cover topsoil is exposed, so we see erosion starting when heavy wind or, or storms sweep the land and here's another cause that I know some of you are already thinking of, the reckless clear-cutting of forests that you can set off the desertification process.
Trees are needed for securing topsoil and reducing wind erosion again balance, I mean sustainability is too often disregarded resulting in still more degradation and keep in mind that a region without grasses and trees only gets hotter and hotter over time. The process doesn't stop with erosion the stark surface reflects sunlight back into the atmosphere leading to greater evaporation and less rainfall, so how exactly can desert vocation be stopped. A big part of the problem is that these societies living in these kinds of harsh zones are usually marginalized and very poor. Some are even war refugees on the run from invading militias, they're well desperate sometimes. It's only through education the teaching of sustainable agricultural techniques that desert vocation can be slowed or stopped common-sense treatment of topsoil is key. And crop rotation has to be practiced the planting of cover crops like beans and lentils that's been shown to boost nitrogen and topsoil responsible irrigation should also coincide with building terraces in hilly areas. Those terraces they look kind of like stairs built into the side of a hill, they help to prevent runoff and erosion planting more trees and specifically chosen locations can also lessen environmental degradation and help to stabilize the soil and we're still developing ways to adapt conservation ingenuity has resulted in something called arid aquaculture a method of breeding fish in the salty ponds of certain dry lands, so as bleak is all this might seem. There's still plenty of opportunity to overcome it.
This concludes the speaking test.